geologic times


This exercise attempts to anchor vocabulary, expressions and grammatical variations of the English language by practicing the four skills with topics that foster critical thinking and one's location in space, time and history.

The topic is Geologic Times with emphasis on vocabulary and expressions related to emotions while practicing the use of conditionals.



At the end of the exercise, students will master vocabulary and expressions regarding emotions and feelings and will have internalized the structures of conditionals in English. At the same time, they will have challenged themselves with wider concepts of space and time, natural history, identity, individuation, the role of humans in nature and the meaning of life.

Students in groups of three will prepare for an oral presentation about the assigned Geologic Time. 

TASK (what to do):

1.  Research different aspects in articles, videos, images, of the assigned geologic time.

2.  Prepare an oral presentation about the assigned geologic time. Support the oral presentation with pictures, diagrams, video-clips, and other means, as well as written material to get and maintain the attention and participation of the audience.

3.  Give an oral presentation that includes:

  1. Introduction and main subdivisions of the topic
  2. Explanation of each subdivision
  3. Conclusions
  4. Questions and answers and interaction with the audience

Students are free to use any strategy to foster audience attention and participation (posters, pictures, mind-maps, videos, plays, games)

Oral introduction, narrative in the student's own words: minimum 2 minutes per person; no reading.

Short video: maximum 3 minutes (in English).

Short quiz at the end of group presentation (kahoots, quia, etc.)

Explain and give examples of associated prefixes and suffixes, such as:

  Hadean: hell, death

  Arche: old -archeology

  Proto: first

  Phanero: visible, appear

  Paleo: old –paleolithic, neolithic

  Meso: medium

  Ceno: recent

  Pre: before

  Zoo, zoic


Lengua Extranjera - Inglés




Sesión 1:

1 Sesión

Sesión 2:

2 hours

Sesión 3:

1 hour.

Sesión 4:

2 hours


  • Sistema Operativo
  • Internet - Información
  • Manejo de teclado
  • Wiki
  • Editor vectorial (Flash
  • Svg
  • etc)
  • Editor de páginas Web
  • Fotografía/Video
  • Micromundos


This project can be adapted to levels VI, VII and VIII.


All students in the class should review the subject of geologic times, so as to be well prepared to understand and participate in the presentations by the groups. There is plenty of literature online on the subject, as in Wikipedia, YouTube, Google, and similar sources.

Actividades de Clase


Actividad 1

Introduction and practices with conditionals.


1 Sesión

Actividad Docente

Actividad del docente

Teacher explains the conditionals in the English language: zero, first, second and third.

Teacher provides examples and drills students on each conditional.

Teacher introduces the topic of geologic times with the help of charts and infographics.

meteoroid is smaller than an asteroid

a meteor has not fallen yet

a meteorite (when it has fallen)


Zero conditional: present – present (always true)


If plants don’t get water, they die. Plants die when they don’t get water.

                When plants don’t get water, they die. Plants die if they don’t get water.

                When I’m feeling stressed, I eat chocolate. I eat chocolate when/if I’m feeling stressed.

                If I’m not in the classroom at 7am, my teacher gets angry. My teacher gets angry if/when …




First conditional: present – future, might, could

You’ll get sunburn if you sit in the sun.

When I pass English, I’ll have a party.

I’ll meet you at 10am if my plane arrives on time.

I’ll go to the party at midnight, unless you call me before.



Second conditional: simple past – would

I’d be there if I had time.

If she had enough money, she would give us some.

Would you help me if I paid you?

I wouldn’t do that if I were you.






Third conditional: past perfect – would + present perfect

I wouldn’t have asked you out if had known you had a boyfriend.

If she had known that he was married, she wouldn’t have gone out with him.

He would have paid for the tickets if he had had enough money.

I would have let you know if I had been there.

Zero conditional: present – present (always true)


When (if) meteors or asteroids hit the Earth, they (bring, may bring, might bring, could bring) water chemicals or other elements.


If a meteor hits the Earth, the Earth gets bigger and heavier (more massive).

When there is more photosynthesis, there is more oxygen in the air.

New kinds of living organisms develop as the Earth gets cooler.



First conditional: present – future, might, could

If the atmosphere warms up, will the Earth continue getting colder?





Second conditional: simple past – would

Would the Earth stop cooling if it became a snow ball, as it did in the proterozoic?

If the atmosphere warmed up, would the Earth continue getting colder?

Suppose you were snorkeling in San Andres. What would you do if you saw a trilobite your size?

What would you do if you saw a bull running directly towards you?

What would you do if you saw a T. Rex running directly towards you?



Third conditional: past perfect – would + present perfect

If the asteroid had not stricken in Yucatan 65 million years ago, would the dinosaurs have survived?

If the asteroid had not stricken the Earth 65 million years ago, would humans have evolved from primates?

If you had been on the Earth when the asteroid hit, what would you have done?


Go to Google: Beaches (images)

ZERO CONDITIONAL (always true)

What happens if the ice melts? The sea level rises.


If the ice melts, the sea level will rise.


What would happen if the polar ice-caps melted?

If all the ice melted, the sea level would rise 300 meters and many islands and cities would go underwater, but not Cali. Why not?


What would have happened if the entire polar ice-caps had totally melted down?

If all the ice-caps had already melted, many cities would have gone underwater (they would have disappeared), and the sea level would have risen 300 meters above today's level.

READ AND IDENTIFY THE CONDITIONALS USED: “If, instead of listening to the war-mongers of the military-industrial establishment, the politicians had only listened to what people had been writing in their letters and in the newspaper columns, if they had only listened to what the demonstrators had been shouting in the streets and on the campuses, if they had only listened to what was in their hearts, the war would have ended long ago.”


Complete the blank spaces

1: If it is sunny tomorrow _______________________________________________

2: If you sit in the sun too long __________________________________________

3: If I were you _______________________________________________________

4: If I were the Prime Minister ___________________________________________

5: If she had studied harder _____________________________________________

6: If I won the lottery __________________________________________________

7: If I hadn’t gone to bed so late _________________________________________

8: If I hadn’t come to London ___________________________________________

9: If you mix water and electricity ________________________________________

10: If she hadn’t stayed at home __________________________________________

11: If I go out tonight___________________________________________________

12: If I were on holiday today ____________________________________________

13: If I had listened to my mother _________________________________________

14: If I hadn’t eaten so much _____________________________________________

15: If it rains later ______________________________________________________

16: If I were British ____________________________________________________

17: If I were the opposite sex ____________________________________________

18: If I have enough money ______________________________________________

19: If you don’t wear a coat in the winter ___________________________________

20: If I weren’t studying English __________________________________________


Possible answers: 1: If it is sunny tomorrow, we'll go to the park. 2: If you sit in the sun too long , you get burned. 3: If I were you, I would go out tonight. 4: If I were the Prime Minister, I would make the museums free. 5: If she had studied harder, she would have passed the exam. 6: If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house. 7: If I hadn’t gone to bed so late, I wouldn't have been tired. 8: If I hadn’t come to London, I would have gone to New York. 9: If you mix water and electricity, you get a shock. 10: If she hadn’t stayed at home, she would have gone shopping. 11: If I go out tonight, I'll go to the cinema. 12: If I were on holiday today, I would go to the beach. 13: If I had listened to my mother, I wouldn't have caught a cold. 14: If I hadn’t eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt sick. 15: If it rains later, I won't go out. 16: If I were British, I would speak perfect English. 17: If I were the opposite sex, I would grow a beard. 18: If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes. 19: If you don’t wear a coat in the winter, you get sick. 20: If I weren’t studying English, I would study French.


Actividad Estudiante

Actividad del estudiante


Every group of three students (S1), (S2), (S3) prepares oral presentations as follows: each student will be in charge of the corresponding eon's, era's, or period's subdivision as indicated below:

GROUP 1: Hadean Eon

(S1) From the start of the solar system (around 4,600 million years ago) until (S2) accretion, impact and cooling led to stable Earth-Moon orbits and (S3) the formation of the first rocks (3.8 billion years ago). No evidence of life.


GROUP 2: Archean Eon

(S1) During this time, from about 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, the Earth had an atmosphere with little free oxygen. (S2) The first rocks and oceans were formed and (S3) single-celled (unicellular) life –prokaryotes-  appeared.


GROUP 3: Proterozoic Eon

(S1) It was characterized by the buildup of oxygen in the atmosphere and (S2) the appearance of the first multicellular eukaryotes. Bacteria and marine algae were the principal forms of life. (S3) From about 2.5 billion to 542 million years ago, marked by the formation of stable continents.


GROUP 4: Phanerozoic Eon

Paleozoic Era: the era of ancient life, from about 542 to 251 million years ago.

(S1) Cambrian Period: From 570 to 500 million years ago, characterized by desert land areas, warm seas and rapid early diversification of marine life, resulting in the rise of almost all modern animal phyla. Algae and marine invertebrates, especially trilobites, were the predominant form of life.

Ordovician Period: Time from about 488 to 444 million years ago, characterized by a major increase in marine biodiversity, algae and seaweeds, and the appearance of the supercontinent Gondwana.

(S2) Silurian Period: From 425 to 405 million years ago, characterized by the development of jawed fishes, invertebrate land animals and land plants. Marked by the advent of air breathing animals.

Devonian Period: From 416 to 359 million years ago, characterized by the development of lobe-finned fishes, the appearance of ammonites, amphibians and insects, the first forests, and dominance of fishes.

(S3) Carboniferous Period: 

Mississippian: Between 359 and 318 million years ago, characterized by the submergence of extensive land areas under shallow seas and by the appearance of primitive conifers.

Pennsylvanian: Between 318 and 299 million years ago, characterized by warm climates, further development of insects  and the appearance of the first reptiles and   widespread swamp forests.

Permian Period: Between 299 and 251 million years ago, characterized by the formation of the supercontinent Pangea, development of modern conifers, and diversification of reptiles. It ended with the largest known mass extinction in which 90 percent of lifeforms were wiped out.


Mesozoic Era: the era of reptiles and gymnosperms

Between 251 and 66 million years ago, this era includes the (S1) Triassic, (S2) Jurassic and (S3) Cretaceous periods and is characterized by the development of flying reptiles, birds, and flowering plants, as well as the appearance and extinction of dinosaurs.


Cenozoic Era: the era of mammals and angiosperms

From 66 million years ago to the present, includes the (S1) Paleogene (Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene), (S2) Neogene (Miocene, Pliocene), and (S3) Quaternary (Pleistocene, Holocene) periods and is characterized by the formation of modern continents, glaciations, and the diversification of mammals, birds and plants.



Evaluation of listening comprehension

After all groups have finished presenting their work, students will answer questions posed by the teacher and then take a written quiz to demonstrate how well they retained the information during said presentations.

1)During which era did Pangaea break up?

Mesozoic Era

Paleozoic Era

Precambrian Time

2)The geologic time scale was developed using

C. changes in fossils

A. climate data

D. meteorite fragments

B. glacial grooves.

3)What era am I describing?

The era of recent life; continues today. 

  • Part of the this era comprised the Ice Age. 
  • Himalayan and Alps Mountains began to form. 
  • Mammals became larger. 
  • Homo sapiens, wise man, appeared during this era.



4)Which geologic event occurred during the Mesozoic era?  

The Pleistocene Ice Age began

1st homo sapien appeared

1st fish evolved

Dinosaurs roamed the land.

5)  What time period am I describing. Rocks dating back in this time were  RARE because of erosion; hence hardly no fossil records. Rocks were buried and changed by extreme heat and pressure. Fossils could not withstand the conditions. 


6)List the 4 time periods (eras) beginning with the most recent one.

Precambrian Time, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Paleozoic

Precambrian Time, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic

Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Precambrian, Cenozoic

Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambrian Time

7)What is the longest part of Earth’s history. Trace fossils appeared.

Paleozoic Era

Cenozoic Era

Mesozoic Era

Precambrian Time

8)_______________ is change of animals over time.

periodic table

organic evolution

natural selection

9)The theory that organisms with characteristics best suited for that environment will survive there is known as _______________.

organic evolution

natural selection

solar system

10)The movie "Jurassic Park" got its title from which era?

Cenozoic Era

Paleozoic Era

Mesozoic Era

11)Which era am I describing.   The era of ancient life. It is divided into 3 periods, Early, Middle, and late. The age of the invertebrates was in this era.


12)   Dinosaurs and birds are said to have evolved during The Mesozoic Eera.




13)The era of middle life; a time of many changes on Earth.






Cyanobacteria does not produce oxygen.



15)Approximately how old is the earth?

3.5 MYA

4.6 BYA

4.6 MYA


16)The Geologic time scale is subdivided into 4 groups. List them beginning with the largest.

eons, eras, periods, epochs

epochs, periods, eras, eons

eras, eon, periods, epochs

eons, periods, epochs, eras

17)________________ are the longest subdivision of GTS.




18)___________ are blue green algae thought to be one of the earliest forms of life on Earth. It contains chlorophyll and photosynthesized and produced oxygen. We give thanks to their existence.

Mesozoic Era



19)The Cenozoic era is called the age of mammals because

A. mammals first evolved at this time.

C. many dinosaurs became extinct during this time.

B. fish were very successful during this time.

20)At the end of which era did the largest mass extinction occur, wiping out 95% of marine life and 70% of life on land?




21)Describe what is meant by the Cambrian explosion. it is the explosion of


22)__________ is the division of Earth’s history based on life forms which lived during that period.

Seafloor spreading

Prehistoric dinosaurs

Geologic Time Scale

23)What three eras make up the Phanerozoic Eon?  Match the name with the Era. 

Paleozoic Era

    Select a Matchancient liferecent lifemiddle life

Mesozoic Era

    Select a Matchancient lifemiddle liferecent life

Cenozoic Era

    Select a Matchmiddle liferecent lifeancient life

24)__________ is a group of organisms which have the ability to reproduce with members of their group.




25)End of this (these) era(s) was believed to be caused by a meteorite, comet or asteroid colliding with Earth, causing a huge cloud of dust and smoke to rise into the atmosphere, blocking out the sun. Check all that applies.

Mesozoic Era

Paleozoic Era

Cenozoic Era


2 hours

Actividad Docente

Explain again what students have to do in their presentations and answer any questions that may arise on the subject.

Actividad Estudiante

Oral presentation of group 1.

Oral presentation of group 2.


Implementing oral presentations of other groups.


1 hour.

Actividad Docente

Review what has been done so far. Answer students questions.

Actividad Estudiante

Oral presentation group 3.

Oral presentation group 4.



2 hours

Actividad Docente

EMOTIONS: all exercises in Speakout Unit 6


EMOTIONS, VOCAB: all exercises in Speakout Unit 6

Actividad Estudiante

EMOTIONS: all exercises in Speakout Unit 6


EMOTIONS, VOCAB: all exercises in Speakout Unit 6





Actividad Docente

Actividad Estudiante


Asssessments as detailed in sessions 1, 2, 3, 4.

In addition, students will answer quizzes in or in Moodle.

As established by the corresponding teacher.



Autor: Jaime Londono Gomez

Fecha de publicación : 2019-07-25 10:44:24

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